HFE C282Y, the mutant protein associated with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), fails to acquire the correct conformation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is targeted for degradation. We have recently shown that an active unfolded protein response (UPR) is present in the cells of patients with HH. Now, by using HEK 293T cells, we demonstrate that the stability of HFE C282Y is influenced by the UPR signaling pathway that promotes its degradation. Treatment of HFE C282Y-expressing cells with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid derivative with chaperone properties, or with the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) impeded the UPR activation. However, although TUDCA led to an increased stability of the mutant protein, 4PBA contributed to a more efficient disposal of HFE C282Y to the degradation route. Fluorescence microscopy and biochemical analysis of the subcellular localization of HFE revealed that a major portion of the C282Y mutant protein forms intracellular aggregates. Although neither TUDCA nor 4PBA restored the correct folding and intracellular trafficking of HFE C282Y, 4PBA prevented its aggregation. These data suggest that TUDCA hampers the UPR activation by acting directly on its signal transduction pathway, whereas 4PBA suppresses ER stress by chemically enhancing the ER capacity to cope with the expression of misfolded HFE, facilitating its degradation. Together, these data shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in HFE C282Y-related HH and open new perspectives on the use of orally active chemical chaperones as a therapeutic approach for HH.