HFE C282Y is an example of a mutant protein that does not fold correctly, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and was found previously to diminish surface expression of MHC class I (MHC-I). We now show that its expression in 293T cells triggers an unfolded protein response (UPR), as revealed by the increased levels of H chain binding protein, GRP94, and C/EBP homologous protein. Elevated levels of these proteins were also found in HFE C282Y homozygous PBMCs. Following the UPR induction, a decrease in MHC-I cell surface expression was observed. This defect in MHC-I could be mimicked, however, by overexpression of transcriptionally active isoforms of activating transcription factor-6 and X box-binding protein-1, which induced the UPR, and reversed in HFE C282Y-expressing cells by using dominant-negative constructs that block UPR signaling. The present results provide evidence to the finding that stimulation of an UPR affects MHC-I expression.