Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-mediated quorum sensing has been extensively studied in relation to the regulation of microbial behavior. There are, however, two potential roles for the AI-2 synthase (LuxS). The first is in the production of AI-2 and the second is as an enzyme in the activated methyl cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of S-ribosylhomocysteine to homocysteine. The by-product of the reaction catalyzed by LuxS is (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, which spontaneously forms the furanones known collectively as AI-2. The mammalian gut contains a complex collection of bacterial species so a method of interspecies communication might influence community structure and function. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 is an autochthonous inhabitant of the rodent forestomach, where it adheres to the nonsecretory epithelium, forming a biofilm. Microarray comparisons of gene expression profiles of the L. reuteri 100-23 wild type and a luxS mutant under different culture conditions revealed altered transcription of genes encoding proteins associated with cysteine biosynthesis/oxidative stress response, urease activity, and sortase-dependent proteins. Metabolomic analysis showed that the luxS mutation affected cellular levels of fermentation products, fatty acids and amino acids. Cell density-dependent changes (log phase versus stationary phase growth) in gene transcription were not detected, indicating that AI-2 was unlikely to be involved in gene regulation mediated by quorum sensing in L. reuteri 100-23.