Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious and therefore more discerning in their food choices. The production of fermented food products with elevated levels of B-vitamins increase both their commercial and nutritional value, and eliminate the need for subsequent fortification with these essential vitamins. Such novel products could reduce the incidence of inadequate vitamin intake which is common in many parts of the world, not only in developing countries, but also in many inclustrialised countries. Moreover, the concept of in situ fortification by bacterial fermentation opens the way for development of food products targeted at specific groups in society Such as the elderly and adolescents. This review looks at how vitamin overproduction strategies have been developed, some of which have successfully been tested in animal models. Such innovative strategies could be relatively easily adapted by the food industry to develop novel vitamin-enhanced functional foods with enhanced consumer appeal. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.