The findings of a number of cross-sectional studies suggest benefits of high phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) intake on bone health in later life. Until recently these observational data were supported by the findings of an intervention study that showed a protective role for vitamin K-1 (together with calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D-3) on bone loss over 3 years in early postmenopausal women. Over the last 18 months, two further important intervention studies have been published, which investigated the effect of vitamin K-1 on bone loss in older subjects. These two studies add to the evidence-base but cast some doubt on the benefits of high vitamin K-1 intake on bone health in later life. (C) 2008 International Life Sciences Institute.