High-pressure (HP) processing has emerged as a commercially successful technology for food applications in recent years. Application of HP to foods can lead to modifications in the interactions between individual components in the food matrix, alteration of enzymatic activity and inactivation of microorganisms. HP treatment of milk and cheese has resulted in inactivation of a wide range of micro-organisms, including starter and secondary flora, spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Application of HP to milk affects milk proteins and has, as a consequence, a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of the treated milks. Further research to fully investigate the impacts of such treatments on cheese manufacturing efficiency and ripening characteristics is required. Treatment of cheese at high pressures has resulted in accelerated levels of proteolysis and impacted on the functional properties of a range of cheeses. Additional studies that followed the consequences HP treatment throughout ripening would greatly add to our knowledge in this area. Overall, HP processing may have a number of significant applications in control of cheese manufacture, ripening and safety. However, many of the studies to date have not considered the industrial relevance of the observed HP-induced changes; future research should attempt to address this issue.