Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Nolan, L. M. A.,Corish, J.,Corrigan, O. I.,Fitzpatrick, D.;
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Iontophoretic and chemical enhancement of drug delivery - Part 1: Across artificial membranes. International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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This paper reports on measurements of the release characteristics of the model drug salbutamol base from a liquid crystalline vehicle across a non-rate limiting synthetic membrane. The measured passive release rates were compared with analogous behaviour: (i) when a penetration enhancer such as oleic acid was incorporated into the vehicle; (ii) when the release was iontophoretically assisted; and (iii) when the penetration enhancer and iontophoretic assistance were used simultaneously. The effects of using isotonic phosphate buffer solution as the aqueous domain of the vehicle and in the receptor were also separately assessed. The passive release from the standard system was consistent with matrix diffusion control. The addition of oleic acid indicated association of the drug with the fatty acid so that its release into an aqueous medium was significantly retarded. With buffer ions present in the vehicle the release rate increased consistent with reduced association, and when phosphate buffer was used as a receptor medium the release rate exceeded that of the standard vehicle due to an ion exchange process. The delivery of salbutamol from the fatty acid containing systems was substantially enhanced by iontophoresis and the rates were shown to be approximately proportional to the assisting currents. The data clearly indicate the iontophoretic process to be significantly less efficient in the presence of buffer ions but with the iontophoretic delivery rates being enhanced by the presence of a fatty acid. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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