Nanostructured materials are central to the evolution of future electronics and information technologies. Ferroelectrics have already been established as a dominant branch in the electronics sector because of their diverse application range such as ferroelectric memories, ferroelectric tunnel junctions, etc. The on-going dimensional downscaling of materials to allow packing of increased numbers of components onto integrated circuits provides the momentum for the evolution of nanostructured ferroelectric materials and devices. Nanoscaling of ferroelectric materials can result in a modification of their functionality, such as phase transition temperature or Curie temperature (TC), domain dynamics, dielectric constant, coercive field, spontaneous polarisation and piezoelectric response. Furthermore, nanoscaling can be used to form high density arrays of monodomain ferroelectric nanostructures, which is desirable for the miniaturisation of memory devices. This review article highlights some research breakthroughs in the fabrication, characterisation and applications of nanoscale ferroelectric materials over the last decade, with priority given to novel synthetic strategies.