Pentafluorophenyl and phenyl stationary phases
Supercritical CO2 functionalisation and endcapping
Neue solutes mixture
FLUORINATED STATIONARY PHASES
Pentafluorophenyl and phenyl silica stationary phases offer alternative selectivity compared to alkyl bonded C-18 and C-8 stationary phases, through other interactions such as pi-pi interactions, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bond interactions. Pentafluorophenyl and phenyl silica bonded stationary phases were efficiently prepared in sc-CO2 specifically pentafluorophenyl propyl (PFPP), pentafluorophenyl (PFP), phenyl propyl (PP) and phenyl (P) silica stationary phases. The bonded phases were characterised by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), BET, and by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Chromatographic performance of the supercritical fluid generated phases was also investigated using the Neue test. The authors present results which demonstrate that pentafluorophenyl and phenyl stationary phases can be prepared successfully under supercritical conditions of 100 degrees C, 414 bar in a reaction time of 1 h with surface coverage comparable to traditional organic solvent based methods. Chromatographic results reveal that the pentafluorophenyl propyl (PFPP) phase provides superior separation performance for Neue test solutes despite having a lower ligand density (C: 5.67%, 2.2 mu mol/m(2)) compared to the phenyl propyl (PP) analogue having the highest ligand density (C: 6.67%, 2.5 mu mol/m(2)). The difference chromatographic performance is attributed to the polarity of the C-F bond in PFPP phase. Moreover, as the alkyl chain length decreases, the hydrophobic interaction also decreases, and the PFPP phase (with a propyl linkage) provides better separation compared to the PFP phase. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.