Aims: Positive psychological constructs, such as gratitude, have
demonstrated the potential to improve psychological and physical well-being.
Gratitude has yet to be investigated with pregnant women. This study examined
the factor structure of a newly developed gratitude scale for use during
pregnancy (GDP), and examined differences in gratitude based on participant
366 pregnant women completed an online
questionnaire examining levels of gratitude. Participants were experiencing
their first (n= 97) or a subsequent (n= 269) pregnancy. The structure of the GDP was examined using factor
analytic and inter-item reliability statistics. The sample was also grouped by parity, and the
statistical strength of the GDP examined for group differences.
fit a four-factor structure, with 18 items for the whole measure. Although parous groups shared factor
structure of the GDP, the factor structure for the nulliparous group was
different. Further analysis indicated an
improved fit of an alternative four-factor structure, with 20 items, for the
This is the first study to examine gratitude during
pregnancy and to examine the structure of positive psychological constructs
based on participant parity. The findings indicate that parity status
influences the structure and experience of positive aspects of pregnancy.
Addressing parity-based differences in future intervention work will enhance
our ability to promote and maintain well-being during pregnancy.