The performance of the lithium-ion cell is heavily dependent on the ability of the host electrodes to accommodate and release Li+ ions from the local structure. While the choice of electrode materials may define parameters such as cell potential and capacity, the process of intercalation may be physically limited by the rate of solid-state Li+ diffusion. Increased diffusion rates in lithium-ion electrodes may be achieved through a reduction in the diffusion path, accomplished by a scaling of the respective electrode dimensions. In addition, some electrodes may undergo large volume changes associated with charging and discharging, the strain of which, may be better accommodated through nanostructuring. Failure of the host to accommodate such volume changes may lead to pulverisation of the local structure and a rapid loss of capacity. In this review article, we seek to highlight a number of significant gains in the development of nanostructured lithium-ion battery architectures (both anode and cathode), as drivers of potential next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices.