Schizophrenia is a common neuropsychiatric disorder of uncertain etiology that is believed to result from the interaction of environmental factors and multiple genes. To identify new genes predisposing to schizophrenia, numerous groups have focused on CAG-repeat-containing genes. We previously reported a CAG repeat polymorphism that was shown to be associated with both the severity of the phenotype and the response to medication in schizophrenic patients. In this article, we now report the genomic structure of this gene, the retinoic acid inducible-1 gene (RAI1), and present its characterization. This gene, located on chromosome 17p11.2, comprises six exons coding for a 7.6-kb mRNA. The RAI1 gene is highly homologous to its mouse counterpart and it is expressed at high levels mainly in neuronal tissues.