In January 2007, the Paediatric Regulation entered into force and established the Paediatric Committee (PDCO) within the European Medicines Agency. The goal of the PDCO is to improve the health of the children of Europe by increasing high-quality research for medicinal products and promoting the development and authorization of such medicines at the EU level. A major function of the PDCO is to formulate and authorize Paediatric Investigation Plans and Paediatric Use Marketing Authorisations. The EU's Seventh Framework Programme for Research has facilitated the establishment of consortia whose ultimate goal is to answer important clinical questions involving medicines commonly used "off-label", in children. The benefits of these consortia include enhanced collaboration amongst paediatricians, scientists and small to medium enterprises whose ultimate goal is to obtain an authorization for a new indication or formulation for use in the paediatric population. It will be interesting in a number of years time to measure the success of this very important European initiative.