We investigate the impact of using a carbon based gas diffusion layer (GDL) as the current collector for Li-O2 batteries. It is shown that the GDL actively participates in ORR during discharge conditions and, if its mass is not accounted for, can lead to inflated discharge capacity figures compared to inert cathode supports. SEM and XRD analyses show that Li2O2 discharge products form on cathodes composed of as-received GDL in a similar manner to that observed for carbon on stainless steel (SS) current collectors (at
applied currents of 100 μA cm−2 or less). The relative activity of the GDL, carbon on GDL and carbon-on-stainless steel current
collectors from voltammetric measurements confirmed ORR and OER processes to be similar at all carbon-based surfaces. When heated above 300◦C, degradation of the binder in the GDL and associated loss of carbon from the substrate surface leads to reduced discharge times compared to the pristine GDL substrates. The data highlight the importance of the contribution to ORR/OER in carbon-based active current collector substrates when determining gravimetric capacities of Li-O2 batteries.