There is an increasing number of regulatory and public policy initiatives aimed at improving building energy efficiency, recognizing the importance of the built environment to achieve lower energy related emissions. However, these efforts have generally focused on the building scale. A comprehensive reduction of carbon emissions from construction requires a wider focus, considering the building as well as the lifecycle of materials and their supply chains. There is a need for robust analysis of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) implications of construction supply chains and to optimize supply chains configurations so as to minimize GHG emissions across multiple organizations. This chapter provides a rigorous means of assessing the dynamic and complex supply chains of construction to obtain optimal and sustainable levels of GHG reductions in a whole-of-chain approach. Outcomes represent critical new knowledge, enabling deeper understanding as well as enhanced capacity to maximize energy savings from the built environment.