CDTE QUANTUM DOTS
Nanomaterials have received much attention for their fascinating catalytic activity, large surface area, and excellent photonic and electronic features. These characteristic properties have been used to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of biosensors. This article reviews nanomaterials, including metal nanoparticles (NPs), carbon materials, quantum dots, magnetic NPs and silicon NPs, and evaluates their different functions when applied to the construction of carbohydrate biosensors. Furthermore, we discuss specialized nanomaterials, e.g., photo-to-electron conversion nanomaterials, upconverting NPs, composite nanomaterials and nanopores. Finally, we present applications of nanomaterial-based carbohydrate biosensors, including profiling of carbohydrate-lectin interaction, cancer-cell and pathogen detection, and glycosylation analysis. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.