BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The type of dietary fat influences the blood lipid profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating cholesterol levels and other lipids, when included in an energy-restricted diet to nutritionally treat obesity.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty-five patients (BMI: 30.5 [1.3], age: 33  years), were randomly assigned during 8 weeks one of the following diets: omega-3 fatty acids supplemented (EPA + DHA), enriched in salmon (150 g/day, 3 times/week) or control (placebo). Anthropometry and blood measurements were determined at baseline (day 0) and at endpoint (day 56).
RESULTS: Circulating total cholesterol statistically decreased after the slimming nutritional intervention in all experimental groups, being more pronounced in the enriched diet group (p < 0.001). The HDL-c levels decreased in both placebo (p = 0.004) and omega-3 supplemented (p = 0.053) dietary groups, while subjects who followed the salmon diet did not show such changes in HDL-c (p = 0.936).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a balanced hypocaloric diet enriched in salmon results in a beneficial effect on the plasma lipid profile that could be mediated by the salmon composition as a whole, and not only by the omega-3 content.