In this study, pediococci selective medium (PSM) was evaluated for the enumeration of Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus from probiotic animal feed and silage inoculants. PSM is based on the complex basal medium MRS supplemented with cysteine hydrochloride, novobiocin, vancomycin, and nystatin. No significant change in electivity was observed when pediococci where recovered from culture or powder-based products following incubation at 37 degrees C under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The medium was suitable for the enumeration of pediococci in samples also containing bacilli, bifidobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli, lactococci, propionibacteria, streptococci, and yeast components. However, to inhibit Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei, ampicillin was added and the revised medium, termed PSM+A, was also considered to be suitably elective for pediococci recovered from powder. In addition, a rapid PFGE protocol is presented, which allows Pediococcus species and strain verification from colonies in less than 3 days. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.