Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Atkins, JF,Loughran, G,Bhatt, PR,Firth, AE,Baranov, PV
2016
September
Nucleic acids research
Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: From genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use
Validated
WOS: 142 ()
Optional Fields
HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS DOUBLE-STRANDED-RNA ORNITHINE-DECARBOXYLASE ANTIZYME MAMMARY-TUMOR VIRUS AMINOACYL-TRANSFER-RNA ROUS-SARCOMA-VIRUS OPEN READING FRAME RELEASE FACTOR-II PROGRAMMED TRANSLATIONAL FRAMESHIFT COMPLETE NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE
44
7007
7078
Genetic decoding is not 'frozen' as was earlier thought, but dynamic. One facet of this is frame-shifting that often results in synthesis of a C-terminal region encoded by a new frame. Ribosomal frameshifting is utilized for the synthesis of additional products, for regulatory purposes and for translational 'correction' of problem or 'savior' indels. Utilization for synthesis of additional products occurs prominently in the decoding of mobile chromosomal element and viral genomes. One class of regulatory frameshifting of stable chromosomal genes governs cellular polyamine levels from yeasts to humans. In many cases of productively utilized frameshifting, the proportion of ribosomes that frameshift at a shift-prone site is enhanced by specific nascent peptide or mRNA context features. Such mRNA signals, which can be 5' or 3' of the shift site or both, can act by pairing with ribosomal RNA or as stem loops or pseudoknots even with one component being 4 kb 3' from the shift site. Transcriptional realignment at slippage-prone sequences also generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence. This too can be enhanced by nucleic acid structure. Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression.
10.1093/nar/gkw530
Grant Details