Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Nashan, B.,Moore, R.,Amlot, P.,Schmidt, A. G.,Abeywickrama, K.,Soulillou, J. P.
Randomised trial of basiliximab versus placebo for control of acute cellular rejection in renal allograft recipients. CHIB 201 International Study Group
Optional Fields
Acute Disease Adult Aged Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects/*therapeutic use Cadaver Cyclosporine/therapeutic use Double-Blind Method Female Follow-Up Studies Graft Rejection/epidemiology/*prevention & control Graft Survival Human Immunosuppression Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects/*therapeutic use Incidence Kidney Transplantation/*immunology Male Middle Aged Receptors, Interleukin-2/immunology Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Time Factors
BACKGROUND: Currently available immunosuppressive regimens for cadaver-kidney recipients are far from ideal because acute-rejection episodes occur in about 30% to 50% of these patients. In the phase III study described here we assessed the ability of basiliximab, a chimeric interleukin (IL)-2 receptor monoclonal antibody, to prevent acute-rejection episodes in renal allograft recipients. METHODS: 380 adult recipients of a primary cadaveric kidney transplant were randomly allocated, in this double-blind trial, to receive a 20 mg infusion of basiliximab on day 0 (day of surgery) and on day 4, to provide IL-2-receptor suppression for 4-6 weeks (n=193), or to receive placebo (n=187). Both groups received baseline dual immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporin and steroids throughout the study. The primary outcome measure was incidence of acute-rejection episodes during the 6 months after transplantation. Safety and tolerability were monitored over the 12 months of the study. FINDINGS: 376 patients were eligible for intention-to-treat analysis (basiliximab, n=190; placebo, n=186). No significant differences in patient characteristics were apparent. The incidence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection 6 months after transplantation was 51 (29.8%) of 171 in the basiliximab group compared with 73 (44.0%) of 166 in the placebo group (32% reduction; 14.2% difference [95% Kaplan-Meier CIs 3% to 24%], p=0.012). The incidence of steroid-resistant first rejection episodes that required antibody therapy was significantly lower in the basiliximab group (10% vs 23.1%, 13.1% difference [5.4% to 20.8%], p<0.001). At weeks 2 and 4 post-transplantation, the mean daily dose of steroids was significantly higher in the placebo group (p<0.001 with one-way analysis of variance). The incidence of graft loss at 12 months post-transplantation was 23 (12.1%) of 190 in the basiliximab group and 25 (13.4%) of 186 in the placebo group (1.3% difference [-5% to 9%], p=0.591). The incidence of infection and other adverse events was similar in the two treatment groups. The acute tolerability of basiliximab was excellent, with no evidence of cytokine-release syndrome. 14 deaths (basiliximab n=9; placebo n=5; -2.0% difference [-6% to 2%], p=0.293) occurred during the 12-month study and a further three deaths (basiliximab n=1; placebo n=2) occurred within the 380-day cut-off period. One post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder was recorded in each group. INTERPRETATION: Prophylaxis with 40 mg basiliximab reduces the incidence of acute rejection episodes significantly, with no clinically relevant safety or tolerability concerns.
Grant Details