There have been many developments in operative dentistry in recent years, including a progressive shift to the use of resin composites, rather than dental amalgam, in the restoration of posterior teeth. This shift allows the adoption of minimal intervention approaches, thereby helping to conserve and preserve remaining tooth tissues and structures. This paper presents the position of the Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section (AODES) in relation to posterior resin composites. The AODES considers adhesively bonded resin composites of suitable composition and properties to be the "material of choice" for use in direct minimal intervention approaches to the restoration of posterior teeth. In so doing, the AODES emphasises the importance of the practice of evidence-based minimal intervention dentistry, including the use of refurbishment and repair techniques to extend the longevity of restorations. Guidance, based on best available evidence, has been made in relation to certain aspects of resin composite placement techniques in posterior teeth.