In the last decade, treatment of myocardial ischaemia has entered an exciting new era. Substantial gains have been made in morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction by use of pharmacotherapy and coronary intervention, primarily by focusing on early restoration of blood flow to the infarcted territory, and decreasing the effect of susequent acute and haemodynamic compromise and chronic maladaptive remodelling. Despite these advances, a substantial portion of patients receiving optimal treatment by today's standards nonetheless progress to congestive cardiac failure, which carries a very poor prognosis. Regenerative medicine offers great potential for this cohort of patients: the opportunity not only to slow disease progression even further, but even to repair and replace injured and dead myocardium. One aspect to realising this potential may lie in optimising an essential and ubiquitous component of cardiac repair: angiogenesis.