Hippocampal neurogenesis and associated cognitive behaviors are regulated by a number of factors including stress, inflammation, and exercise. However, the interplay between these factors remains relatively unexplored, especially across the lifespan. In the current study, the effect of social isolation stress during the adolescent period on neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent cognitive behaviors was examined. This period of the lifespan has been demonstrated to be an important time for hippocampal growth and plasticity, during which changes to hippocampal neurogenesis may have long lasting effects. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether a 'dual-hit' of adolescent stress and adult chronic neuroinflammation would potentiate any negative effects of either Insult alone. Lastly, the potential positive effects of exercise during adolescence was examined to determine whether exercise could attenuate any negative impacts of these insults on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. The results from the current study demonstrate that social isolation stress during adolescence followed by intra-hippocampal exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 beta in early adulthood produces deficits in both spontaneous alternations and novel object recognition. Exercise attenuated deficits in neurogenesis and novel object recognition In mice that had been exposed to the 'dual-hit' of stress and neuroinflammation. These findings Indicate that adolescence represents a key period of the lifespan during which external factors such as stress and exercise can impact on hippocampal development, and may alter the response to challenges such as neuroinflammation in later life. (C) 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.