Biological research is changing dramatically. Genomic and post-genomic research is responsible for the accumulation of enormous datasets, which allow the formation of holistic views of the organisms under investigation. In the field of microbiology, bacteria represent ideal candidates for this new development. It is relatively easy to sequence the genomes of bacteria, to analyse their transcriptomes and to collect information at the proteomic level. Genome research on symbiotic, pathogenic and associative bacteria is providing important information on bacteria-plant interactions, especially on type-III secretion systems (TTSS) and their role in the interaction of bacteria with plants.