Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
Chung, BYW,Firth, AE,Atkins, JF;
2010
January
Journal of Molecular Biology
Frameshifting in Alphaviruses: A Diversity of 3 ' Stimulatory Structures
Validated
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Optional Fields
frameshifting alphavirus 6K TransFrame PROGRAMMED-1 RIBOSOMAL FRAMESHIFT RNA PSEUDOKNOTS MESSENGER-RNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS GENE-EXPRESSION VIRUS RELEASE PROTEIN SIGNAL YEAST SITE
397
448
456
Programmed ribosomal frameshiffing allows the synthesis of alternative, N-terminally coincident, C-terminally distinct proteins from the same RNA. Many viruses utilize frameshifting to optimize the coding potential of compact genomes, to circumvent the host cell's canonical rule of one functional protein per mRNA, or to express alternative proteins in a fixed ratio. Programmed frameshifting is also used in the decoding of a small number of cellular genes. Recently, specific ribosomal 1 frameshifting was discovered at a conserved U_UUU_UUA motif within the sequence encoding the alphavirus 6K protein. In this case, frameshifting results in the synthesis of an additional protein, termed TF (Trans Frame). This new case of frameshifting is unusual in that the 1 frame ORF is very short and completely embedded within the sequence encoding the overlapping polyprotein. The present work shows that there is remarkable diversity in the 3' sequences that are functionally important for efficient frameshifting at the U_UUU_UUA motif. While many alphavirus species utilize a 3' RNA structure such as a hairpin or pseudoknot, some species (such as Semliki Forest virus) apparently lack any intra-mRNA stimulatory structure, yet just 20 nt 3'-adjacent to the shift site stimulates up to 10% frameshifting. The analysis, both experimental and bioinformatic, significantly expands the known repertoire of 1 frameshifting stimulators in mammalian and insect systems. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DOI 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.01.044
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