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Mandatory Fields
Andersen, R,Molgaard, C,Skovgaard, LT,Brot, C,Cashman, KD,Chabros, E,Charzewska, J,Flynn, A,Jakobsen, J,Karkkainen, M,Kiely, M,Lamberg-Allardt, C,Moreiras, O,Natri, AM,O'Brien, M,Rogalska-Niedzwiedz, M,Ovesen, L;
2005
April
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status
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hypovitaminosis D vitamin D status 25-hydroxyvitamin D elderly women adolescent girls Europe BONE-MINERAL DENSITY D INSUFFICIENCY SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM SERUM 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN-D HYPOVITAMINOSIS-D D SUPPLEMENTATION WHITE WOMEN BODY-FAT OSTEOPOROSIS POPULATION
59
533
541
Objective: To determine the vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; S-25OHD) in adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in four countries of northern Europe and to explain differences in S-25OHD concentrations between and within the countries.Design: A cross-sectional observational study conducted in a standardised way during February-March. S-25OHD was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Vitamin D and calcium intake was calculated using a standardised food composition database.Setting: Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and Poland.Subjects: A total of 199 girls (mean (s.d.) age 12.6 (0.5) y) and 221 women (mean (s.d.) age 71.8 (1.4) y).Results: The median ( inter quartiles) concentration of S-25OHD was 29.4 (20.3, 38.3) nmol/l for the girls and 40.7 (28.0, 54.2) nmol/l for the women. S-25OHD below 25 nmol/l was found in 37% of the girls and 17% of the women, and S-25OHD below 50 nmol/l was found in 92% of the girls and 37% of the women. Positive significant determinants for S-25OHD in girls were use of vitamin D supplements, and in women sun habits, dietary vitamin D intake, use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Body mass index and smoking were negative determinants in women. For women predictors could explain the differences between countries (P-country=0.09, R-2=0.39), but for girls the difference remained significant even after including predictors (P-country=0.03, R-2=0.15).Conclusion: Vitamin D status is low in northern Europe during winter. More than one-third of the adolescent girls have vitamin D status below 25 nmol/l and almost all are below 50 nmol/l. Two-thirds of the elderly community-dwelling women have vitamin D status below 50 nmol/l. Use of vitamin D supplements is a significant positive determinant for S-25OHD for both girls and women (P=0.001).Sponsorship: The European Fifth Framework Programme (Contract No. QLK1-CT-2000-00623).
DOI 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602108
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