Barley isolate Lactococcus lactis M30 produces an antimicrobial proteinaceous activity, which at least under laboratory conditions was shown to target beer spoiling lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus brevis BSH9. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of this antibacterial activity at various stages of the brewing process and in packaged beer. Lactococcus lactis M30 was shown to produce the antimicrobial activity during growth under specific conditions in fortified unhopped wort. However, this activity was lost during wort boiling and yeast fermentation. When the bacteriocin was added directly to beer it retained in vitro activity following pasteurisation, while it was also shown to inhibit growth in situ when pasteurised beer was challenged with low levels of the beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSH9 culture. The capacity of the bacteriocin to prevent microbial spoilage of beer was tested at various temperatures over a period of seven weeks. Storage of bacteriocin-containing beer at 30degreesC or room temperature resulted in a decrease in antimicrobial activity over time, but when refrigerated or frozen, this beer retained sufficient activity to be effective against Lactobacillus brevis BSH9.