Aims: To identify and characterize bacteriocion-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdoughs and to compare in vitro and in situ bacteriocin activity of sourdough- and nonsourdough LAB.Methods and Results: Production of antimicrobial compounds by 437 Lactobacillus strains isolated from 70 sourdoughs was investigated. Five strains (Lactobacillus pentosus 2MF8 and 8CF, Lb. plantarum 4DE and 3DM and Lactobacillus spp. CS1) were found to produce distinct bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS). BLIS-producing Lactococcus lactis isolated from raw barley showed a wider inhibitory spectrum than sourdough LAB, but they did not inhibit all strains of the key sourdough bacterium Lb. sanfranciscensis. Antimicrobial production by Lb. pentosus 2MF8 and Lc. lactis M30 was also demonstrated in situ.Conclusions: BLIS production by sourdough LAB appears to occur at a low frequency, showing limited inhibitory spectrum when compared with BLIS-producing Lc. lactis. Nevertheless, they are active BLIS producers under sourdough and bread-making conditions.Significance and Impact of the Study: The activity of BLIS has been demonstrated in situ. It may influence the complex sourdough microflora and support the implantation and stability of selected insensitive bacteria, such as Lb. sanfranciscensis, useful to confer good characteristics to the dough.