The loss of natural teeth compromises chewing efficiency, and edentulous patients often have a diet that is deficient in fibre and vitamins. Prostheses that are retained on implants offer the possibility of overcoming some of the limitations of conventional dentures in terms of chewing efficiency. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that improvement in satisfaction with oral prostheses would result in improved food selection in edentulous patients. This prospective study involved three groups, namely (i) subjects who requested and received implants to stabilise a complete fixed or removable prosthesis (IG, n = 26), (ii) edentulous subjects who requested implant prostheses, but received conventional dentures (CDG1, n = 22), and (iii) edentulous subjects who requested and received conventional dentures (CDG2, n = 35). Data were collected using validated questionnaires pre- and postoperatively. Prior to treatment, all subjects were asked whether they ate a variety of hard and soft foods, to indicate the degree of difficulty they experienced when chewing these foods, and to rate their satisfaction with various aspects of their maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. Following the completion of treatment, subjects completed the questionnaires again. Pre- and postoperative data were compared. Subjects who received implant pros-theses reported significant improvement in chewing hard and soft foods. CDG2 subjects also reported improvement, but CDG1 subjects reported no change or even deterioration following treatment. Despite reported improvement in satisfaction with comfort and ability to chew food, 30-50% of IG and CDG2 subjects still avoided eating foods such as carrot and apple. This suggests that, in the absence of tailored dietary advice, apparently successful prosthetic rehabilitation does not necessarily result in a satisfactory diet.