The impact of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens F113Rif on the diversity of the resident community of culturable fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the roots of field-grown sugar beet seedlings was evaluated. At 19 days after sowing, the seed inoculant F113Rif had replaced some of the resident culturable fluorescent pseudomonads at the rhizoplane but had no effect on the number of these bacteria in the rhizosphere. A total of 498 isolates of resident fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained and characterized by molecular means at the level of broad phylogenetic groups (by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and at the strain level (with random amplified polymorphic DNA markers) as well as phenotypically (55 physiological tests). The introduced pseudomonad induced a major shift in the composition of the resident culturable fluorescent Pseudomonas community, as the percentage of rhizoplane isolates capable of growing on three carbon substrates (erythritol, adonitol, and L-tryptophan) not assimilated by the inoculant was increased from less than 10% to more than 40%. However, the pseudomonads selected did not display enhanced resistance to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. The shift in the resident populations, which was spatially limited to the surface of the root (i.e., the rhizoplane), took place without affecting the relative proportions of phylogenetic groups or the high level of strain diversity of the resident culturable fluorescent Pseudomonas community. These results suggest that the root-associated Pseudomonas community of sugar beet seedlings is resilient to the perturbation that may be caused by a taxonomically related inoculant.