Lactobacillus helveticus 1829 produced an antimicrobial agent, designated helveticin V-1829, that demonstrated antagonistic activity against closely-related species. The agent was excreted into MRS agar, and was present in the supernatant fluids from both overnight broth and clotted milk cultures. It was heat labile (inactivated by 50-degrees-C for 30 min) and was stable over the pH range 2.5 to 6.5. Production of the substance was pH-dependent and maximum yields were obtained in MRS broth cultures maintained at pH 5-5. Helveticin V-1829 was partially purified following growth of the producing strain in a semi-defined MRS medium and precipitating the cell-free filtrate with ammonium sulphate to 30% saturation. The cleared supernatant fluid was then brought to 60% saturation and the resulting precipitate pelleted and dialysed in 0.3 mol/l phosphate buffer. The partially purified inhibitor was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes, and it was bactericidal in its mode of action against indicator cells of Lact. helveticus 1844 and Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 1489, indicating that it was a bacteriocin. A DNA probe specific for the helveticin J structural gene failed to hybridize to total genomic DNA of Lact. helveticus 1829 indicating that helveticin V-1829 is not significantly related to helveticin J.