The neurogenic regulation of renal hormonal secretion has been the focus of numerous investigations since the anatomical identification of sympathetic innervation of structures within the kidney other than vascular smooth muscle. The major thrust of this research effort has been on the nature of the neurogenic signal in the regulation of renin and prostaglandin secretion from the kidney into the systemic circulation. Activation of renal sympathetic outflow increases both renin and prostaglandin release and these humoral responses are mediated by beta 1- and alpha-adrenoceptors, respectively. The mechanisms surrounding the release of each of these humoral factors are highly dependent upon the intensity of the neural signal since higher levels of sympathetic activation invoke both tubular and vascular signals which can summate to enhance both the renin and prostaglandin responses. Thus, the interactions which exist between renal sympathetic nerve activity, renin secretion and prostaglandin release can importantly influence renal function and the combination of these factors may alter the regulation of sodium and water balance and consequently the control of arterial pressure.