1. The effect of electrical stimulation of the distal cut ends of the renal nerves of unilaterally nephrectomized, anaesthetized cats was studied. Using stimulation parameters of 15 pulses per second (pps), 15 V and 0.2 msec duration, there was an immediate sharp drop in renal blood flow, as determined by an electromagnetic flowmeter, which was maintained for about 2 min. Flow gradually returned to control values over approximately the next 10 min in spite of continued stimulation for up to 30 min.2. Plasma renin activity (PRA) increased markedly after 10 min of stimulation but 20 min later fell towards pre-stimulation values whether stimulation was maintained or not.3. Phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic-receptor antagonist, abolished both the blood flow and PRA responses to a 10 min period of renal nerve stimulation.4. When the renal artery was constricted in order to produce blood flow changes similar to those found with renal nerve stimulation, the rise in PRA was similar to that observed with renal stimulation.5. In phentolamine-blocked animals, renal artery constriction, as described, produced the same effect on PRA as was observed with renal nerve stimulation.6. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic-receptor antagonist, did not block the blood flow response to renal nerve stimulation, but did block the rise in PRA normally associated with renal nerve stimulation.7. It is suggested that the effect of renal nerve stimulation on PRA is mediated, primarily, by changes in renal blood flow and that one of the steps leading to renin release following stimulation is sensitive to propranolol. This step must be distal to the effect on vascular smooth muscle.