Dental trauma, Intrusion, Immature permanent incisor, Monitoring spontaneous re-eruption, Active orthodontic repositioning, Surgical repositioning.
Background Traumatic intrusion is a luxation type of injury where the tooth is displaced along the axis of the tooth, into the alveolus. This injury is regarded as serious because of the tissue damage that it causes. The traumatic movement is associated with severe damage to the periodontal ligament, pulpal tissue, root and alveolar socket. Despite its severity, the rare occurrence of this injury in permanent teeth has resulted in limited studies of immature and mature permanent incisors. The purpose of this paper is to review this luxation injury of permanent immature incisors, and to describe its diagnosis, treatment and management. In particular, we describe the repositioning strategies used in cases of intrusion injury. These include (i) monitoring spontaneous re-eruption, (ii) active orthodontic repositioning and (iii) surgical repositioning. Firstly, monitoring spontaneous re-eruption is observing and waiting for the intruded tooth to return to its original position. This process is not a normal developmental eruption and the outcome is not always predictable, nor is the time needed for this to happen. Secondly, active orthodontic repositioning is used to describe the process of rapidly moving the intruded tooth to its original position with the aid of an orthodontic appliance. Active orthodontic repositioning is often misunderstood as normal orthodontic movement. Orthodontic movement allows for periodontal ligament remodelling, using light intermittent forces. In contrast the active orthodontic repositioning used to move intruded incisors is rapid, and the primary aim is to achieve correct tooth position as rapidly as possible. Thirdly, surgical repositioning uses surgical intervention to bring the tooth back to its original position. A case of an intruded immature permanent incisor is presented, with a particular emphasis on these critical decisions on repositioning and showing the use of the three modalities of treatment in sequence, in order to achieve an outcome.