A vaccine against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major unmet need to prevent the significant morbidity and mortality that it causes in society. In addition to efficacy, such a vaccine must not induce adverse events, as previously occurred with a formalin-inactivated vaccine (FI-RSV). In this study, the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a molecularly adjuvanted adenovirus serotype 5 based RSV vaccine encoding the fusion (F) protein (Ad-RSVF) is demonstrated in cotton rats. Protective immunity to RSV was induced by Ad-RSVF when administered by an oral route as well as by intranasal and intramuscular routes. Compared to FI-RSV, the Ad-RSVF vaccine induced significantly greater neutralizing antibody responses and protection against RSV infection. Significantly, oral or intranasal immunization each induced protective multi-functional effector and memory B cell responses in the respiratory tract. This study uniquely demonstrates the capacity of an orally administered adenovirus vaccine to induce protective immunity in the respiratory tract against RSV in a pre-clinical model and supports further clinical development of this oral Ad-RSVF vaccine strategy.