Hunter-Schreger Bands (HSBs) are an optical phenomenon visualised when a cut or fractured enamel surface is viewed under reflected light. These bands demonstrate the synchronous decussation of individual or groups of enamel prisms. While the role of HSB patterns has been investigated in comparative anatomical studies, until recently there has been little consideration of HSB patterns in human teeth. The aim of this paper is to consider the significance of HSB patterns in the human dentition and in relation to clinical dentistry. It is concluded that within the human dentition, HSB patterns have evolved to optimise resistance to attrition, abrasion and tooth fracture. It appears that certain aspects of HSB packing densities and distributions have beneficial roles in enamel bonding. Hunter-Schreger Band patterns seem to passively facilitate conditions such as abfraction and cracked tooth syndrome.