Background and aims: The relationship between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic disease is of increasing interest. However, limited data regarding the association between dietary quality and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health exist. Therefore the aim of this work was to examine potential associations between dietary quality, assessed using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary quality score, adiposity and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, lipoprotein metabolism and inflammation in a cross-sectional sample of 1493 men and women. Methods: Anthropometric measurements included BMI, hip and waist circumference (WC). Serum acute-phase reactants, adipocytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined. Lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results: Higher dietary quality was associated with lower BMI (P < 0.05), WC (P < 0.001), tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a), interleukin 6 (IL-6), WBC and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations (P < 0.01) and reduced insulin resistance (P < 0.05). In addition less small low density lipoprotein (LDL) and small high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and less large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles were observed among those with better dietary quality (P < 0.001). Individuals in the top DASH quartile had a 54% and 48% lower likelihood of central obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), respectively, than those in the lowest DASH quartile (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggest that higher quality diet is associated with improved adiposity measures and a less insulin resistant, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and pro-atherogenic cardiometabolic profile which may impact on central obesity and MetS risk. These findings, which may be of clinical and public health significance in terms of dietary approaches to promote cardiometabolic health, warrant further examination.