Abstract: Periodontal disease is a common disease affecting more than 50% of the world’s adult population. It presents a diagnostic
and treatment challenge for the dental clinician. A successful treatment outcome can be achieved by early and repeated intervention
when signs of disease are evident in the mouth. Gingival bleeding is one of the early signs of gum disease and one which should not
be overlooked by the patient or his/her dental care professional. This is usually indicative of the presence of gingivitis, which can lead to
periodontitis in susceptible patients.
CPD/Clinical Relevance: A high standard of plaque control is essential throughout treatment for a favourable periodontal outcome and
yet it is unfortunate that sometimes, despite the best endeavour of both patients and clinicians, this is not possible. As a consequence
of the failure to establish high levels of plaque control, some patients do not respond fully to traditional periodontal therapy and, for
some patients, an ongoing deterioration or ‘downward spiral’ continues and adjuncts to non-surgical periodontal therapy are indicated to
improve periodontal outcomes.