Introduction: In this study, we aimed to compare the incidence of new demineralized lesions and bond failures between 2 groups of participants wearing fixed orthodontic appliances bonded with either light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement or light-cured composite. Methods: This trial was a multicenter (6 centers: 2 teaching hospitals, 4 specialist orthodontic practices), single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel groups. Patients aged 11 years or older, in the permanent dentition, and about to start fixed orthodontic treatment in these 6 centers were randomly allocated to have either resin-modified glass ionomer cement or light-cured composite for bonding brackets, forward of the first molars. Pretreatment and day-of-debond digital photographic images were taken of the teeth and assessed by up to 5 clinical and 3 lay assessors for the presence or absence of new demineralized lesions and the esthetic impact. The assessors were masked as to group allocation. Results: We randomized 210 participants, and 197 completed the trial. There were 173 with complete before-and after-digital images of the teeth. The incidence of new demineralized lesions was 24%; but when the esthetic impact was taken into account, this was considerably lower (9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the bracket adhesives in the numbers with at least 1 new demineralized lesion (risk ratio,1.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-2.13; P = 0.403) or first-time bracket failure (risk ratio,0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.16; P = 0.35). There were no adverse effects. Conclusions: There is no evidence that the use of resin modified glass ionomer cement over light-cured composite for bonding brackets reduces the incidence of new demineralized lesions or bond failures. There might be other reasons for using resin modified glass ionomer cement.