Elucidating metabolic effects of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) may reveal early biomarkers of injury and new treatment targets. This study uses untargeted metabolomics to examine early metabolic alterations in a carefully defined neonatal population. Infants with perinatal asphyxia who were resuscitated at birth and recovered (PA group), those who developed HIE (HIE group) and healthy controls were all recruited at birth. Metabolomic analysis of cord blood was performed using direct infusion FT-ICR mass spectrometry. For each reproducibly detected metabolic feature, mean fold differences were calculated HIE vs. controls (Delta HIE) and PA vs. controls (Delta PA). Putative metabolite annotations were assigned and pathway analysis was performed. Twenty-nine putatively annotated metabolic features were significantly different in Delta PA after false discovery correction (q < 0.05), with eight of these also significantly altered in Delta HIE. Altered putative metabolites included; melatonin, leucine, kynurenine and 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid which differentiated between infant groups (Delta PA and Delta HIE); and D-erythrose-phosphate, acetone, 3-oxotetradecanoic acid and methylglutarylcarnitine which differentiated across severity grades of HIE. Pathway analysis revealed Delta HIE was associated with a 50% and 75% perturbation of tryptophan and pyrimidine metabolism, respectively. We have identified perturbed metabolic pathways and potential biomarkers specific to PA and HIE, which measured at birth, may help direct treatment.