Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition disturbing major brain networks, including those pivotal to the motor control of breathing. The aim of this study was to examine respiratory control in the TgF344-AD transgenic rat model of AD. At 8-11 months of age, basal minute ventilation and ventilatory responsiveness to chemostimulation were equivalent in conscious wild-type (WT) and TgF344-AD rats. Under urethane anesthesia, basal diaphragm and genioglossus EMG activities were similar in WT and TgF344-AD rats. The duration of phenylbiguanide-induced apnoea was significantly shorter in TgF344-AD rats compared with WT. Following bilateral cervical vagotomy, diaphragm and genioglossus EMG responsiveness to chemostimulation were intact in TgF344-AD rats. Amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragments were elevated in the TgF344-AD brainstem, in the absence of amyloid-ß accumulation or alterations in tau phosphorylation. Brainstem pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations were not increased in TgF344-AD rats. We conclude that neural control of breathing is preserved in TgF344-AD rats at this stage of the disease.