Objectives: To investigate the functional and structural impact of neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) on childhood visual development. Methods: In a prospective study, the neurocognitive outcomes of 42 children with a history of neonatal HIE were assessed serially up to 5 years. For the ophthalmic component of the study, visual, refractive, orthoptic and ocular biometry measurements were obtained in 32 children, with axial length measurements estimated using the IOLMaster. Results: For the 32 children who completed the ophthalmic component of the study, severity of HIE grade was determined to be mild, moderate, or severe in 18 (56.3%), 13 (40.6%), and 1 (3.1%) cases, respectively. One (3.1%) child was classed as visually impaired. Twelve (37.5%) were found to have ametropia. Mean (±SD) axial length was 22.09 (±0.81) mm, within the normal range for the age of this cohort. Seven of the 42 (16.7%) children who were involved in the larger neurodevelopmental arm of the study had clinical evidence of a squint. There was no correlation between the severity of HIE grade at birth and axial length or occurrence of squint. Conclusions: Neonatal HIE is associated with a higher incidence of squint compared with the general paediatric population. This occurred irrespective of severity of HIE grade. The ocular biometry measurements were consistent with published normative data, and no significant difference in ocular biometry was demonstrated between HIE severity groups.