Introduction Adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), gestational diabetes (GDM) and preterm birth have been linked to maternal cardiovascular disease in later life. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of postpartum microalbuminuria, but there is no clear consensus on whether HDP increases the risk of maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Similarly, it is uncertain whether GDM, preterm birth and delivery of low birth-weight infants independently predict the risk of maternal renal disease in later life. The aims of this proposed systematic review and meta-analysis are to summarise the available evidence examining the association between adverse outcomes of pregnancy (HDP, GDM, preterm birth, delivery of low birth-weight infant) and later maternal renal disease and to synthesise the results of relevant studies.
Methods and analysis A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science will be undertaken using a detailed prespecified search strategy. Two authors will independently review the titles and abstracts of all studies, perform data extraction and appraise the quality of included studies using a bias classification tool. Original case-control and cohort studies published in English will be considered for inclusion. Primary outcomes of interest will be CKD and ESKD; secondary outcomes will be hospitalisation for renal disease and deaths from renal disease. Meta-analyses will be performed to calculate the overall pooled estimates using the generic inverse variance method. The systematic review will follow the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines.
Ethics and dissemination This systematic review and meta-analysis will be based on published data, and thus there is no requirement for ethics approval. The results will be shared through publication in a peer reviewed journal and through presentations at academic conferences.