Purpose: Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular
symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders
did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health
inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about
testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or
Methods: Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18e47 years.
Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of
Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used.
Results: Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main
categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print
media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives,
ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing
awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies).
Conclusion: Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's
preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally
in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities