Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone sarcoma. Several studies published in the 1960s established that approximately one fifth of patients survive when treated with surgery alone. There is no information, however, about the long-term consequences of osteosarcoma. It is especially relevant to know if these patients are at risk for a second malignancy. We reviewed all clinical records from long-term (defined as more than 10 years) osteosarcoma survivors treated at Mayo Clinic in the prechemotherapeutic era from 1900 to 1960. We re-reviewed histological sections for most cases. Patients or next of kin provided follow-up information during telephone interviews. Rates of second malignancy were compared with expected rates in the population at large. We identified 465 patients treated for osteosarcoma. Of these patients, 83 (17.8\%) were long-term survivors, including 19 who were alive up to 65 years after treatment. Of the 7 patients with pulmonary metastases, 3 died. A second malignancy developed in 26 patients, 15 of whom died of the malignancy. Although long-term survivors of osteosarcoma have a higher incidence of a second malignant tumor than a normal population, this increase was not statistically significant. No demographic or histological variables predicted longterm survival. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.