Although actinomyces has been identified in between 1.77\% and 37\% of resected tonsils1,2 its possible role in recurrent acute tonsillitis has received little attention. A histological and bacteriological study of 129 pairs of tonsils from patients with recurrent acute tonsillitis showed actinomyces to be present in 29.5\%. The organism, however, was also present in 40\% of tonsils from 10 patients with no history of tonsillar disease. In neither of these groups was there any specific evidence of tissue reaction to actinomyces nor was there a male preponderance as in clinical actinomycosis. The presence of actinomyces in the tonsil was not favoured by the concurrence of beta-lactamase producing bacteria. These data indicate that actinomyces does not have a causal role in recurrent acute tonsillitis.