Objectives: To discuss the evolution of active surveillance (AS) as a treatment option for men with prostate cancer, the recommended optimum monitoring protocols, and the experience of men undergoing AS. Data Sources: CINAHL and PubMed; limited to the years 2001-2011. Conclusion: The widespread adoption of prostate-specific antigen screening has led to an increase in the numbers of men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer. AS has emerged as a viable treatment option for some of these men. Such surveillance involves the careful monitoring for signs of cancer progression and selected delayed curative therapy. Implications for Nursing Practice: The nurse has an important role in supporting men on the AS journey. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.