© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel. Copyright: All rights reserved. This review focuses on the role of electroencephalography (EEG) in monitoring abnormalities of preterm brain function. EEG features of the most common developmental brain injuries in preterm infants, including intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and perinatal asphyxia, are described. We outline the most common EEG biomarkers associated with these injuries, namely seizures, positive rolandic sharp waves, EEG suppression/increased interburst intervals, mechanical delta brush activity, and other deformed EEG waveforms, asymmetries, and asynchronies. The increasing survival rate of preterm infants, in particular those that are very and extremely preterm, has led to a growing demand for a specific and shared characterization of the patterns related to adverse outcome in this unique population. This review includes abundant high-quality images of the EEG patterns seen in premature infants and will provide a valuable resource for everyone working in developmental neuroscience.