© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than at any other time of life, partly due to the relative hyperexcitability of the neonatal brain. Brain monitoring of sick neonates in the NICU using either conventional electroencephalography or amplitude integrated EEG is essential to accurately detect seizures. Treatment of seizures is important, as evidence increasingly indicates that seizures damage the brain in addition to that caused by the underlying etiology. Prompt treatment has been shown to reduce seizure burden with the potential to ameliorate seizure-mediated damage. Neonatal encephalopathy most commonly caused by a hypoxia–ischemia results in an alteration of mental status and problems such as seizures, hypotonia, apnea, and feeding difficulties. Confirmation of encephalopathy with EEG monitoring can act as an important adjunct to other investigations and the clinical examination, particularly when considering treatment strategies such as therapeutic hypothermia. Brain monitoring also provides useful early prognostic indicators to clinicians. Recent use of machine learning in algorithms to continuously monitor the neonatal EEG, detect seizures, and grade encephalopathy offers the exciting prospect of real-time decision support in the NICU in the very near future.