The gastrointestinal microbiome has emerged as a key player in regulating brain and behaviour. This has led to the strategy of targeting the gut microbiota to ameliorate disorders of the central nervous system. Understanding the underlying signalling pathways in which the microbiota impacts these disorders is crucial for the development of future therapeutics for improving CNS functionality. One of the major pathways through which the microbiota influences the brain is the immune system, where there is an increasing appreciation for the role of monocyte trafficking in regulating brain homeostasis. In this review, we will shed light on the role of monocyte trafficking as a relay of microbiota signals in conditions where the central nervous system is in disorder, such as stress, peripheral inflammation, ageing, traumatic brain injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimerís disease and Parkinsonís disease. We also cover how the gastrointestinal microbiota is implicated in these mental illnesses. In addition, we aim to discuss how the monocyte system can be modulated by the gut microbiota to mitigate disorders of the central nervous system, which will lead to novel microbiota-targeted strategies.